Vehicle Safety for Children

Children’s car seats have a reputation for being difficult to understand and install, but this doesn’t have to be the case.

We understand the importance of keeping your youngest passengers safe on the road, so we've partnered with child passenger safety advocates SitTight to help make sure everyone has all the information they need to keep children safe in and around vehicles.

 

Child Restraint Technicians

 

There’s no doubt car seats can be a challenge! In the early days of parenting, there is enough to keep you up at night without also wondering whether your precious little one’s car seat has been installed safely.

Thankfully this is one part of parenting that you can pass on to a professional!

There are people trained as “child restraint technicians” who are qualified to advise on and install child restraints as a profession. Spread throughout New Zealand, the CRT workforce is made up of individuals and organisations who can offer you support, answer your questions, reassure you with knowledge, and install your child restraint for you if necessary.

There are CRTs with a wealth of knowledge throughout the country on this topic, so why not let them help you out? Make contact with your local child restraint technician to ensure your car seats are installed securely and your children are safe on our roads.

You can find your local CRT here.

Bent Legs In Rear-Facing Seats

Are you wondering if your child’s bent legs in their rear-facing seat are uncomfortable? You can relax knowing that it is unlikely that this is the case. But let’s look into it further. It’s useful to start by remembering why a child is in a rear-facing position.

It’s safer for a child to travel rear-facing as it provides vital support to their head, neck and spine in a crash.

When we see a child sitting in a rear-facing seat with their legs bent, as adults, we consider what that would feel like for us. It may well be uncomfortable for an adult to sit in that position for a while, but children are not small adults. Their bone structure is different, and they are far more flexible than we are. So they will not feel the same effects as an adult would when sitting in that position.

Some children rear-face until they are 5-6 years old. At this age, they can communicate if they are uncomfortable or not, and this is very rarely the case. It doesn’t make sense to do this, especially when it is unlikely they are uncomfortable in the first place.

It’s best practice to keep children rear-facing until they have outgrown the rear-facing limits of their child restraint.

The Importance of Rear-Facing

 

 

Why is it considered necessary for young children to travel rear-facing?

The short answer to this is that it offers vital support to a child’s head, neck and spine.  The effects of injuries which are caused by trauma to the head, neck and spine can be severe and long-lasting.  Having children travel rear-facing reduces the risk of them suffering these types of injuries.

Let’s explore this further as it helps to understand how this is the case.

Collisions that take place at the front of the vehicle, in other words, “frontal crashes”, are one of the most common types of crash.  In a frontal collision, the force driven through the vehicle is immense. When a frontal crash occurs, everything in the vehicle moves at great force towards the front.  This includes a child in a car seat. 

When a child travels in a rear-facing seat, in a frontal crash, they are immediately forced into the back of their child restraint.  Their entire body, from head to toe, is supported by their car seat.  This support means that when their body is absorbing the initial, most intense force from the crash, their head, neck and spine stay safely in alignment.

Now imagine if a child was travelling in a forward-facing position when a frontal crash happened. When the intense, initial force occurs, and it drives the child’s body towards the front of the vehicle, there is nothing to support their head, neck and spine, or to stop their head moving forward.  The strain on their spine generated by the force of their head moving forward is immense.

For this reason, it is best practice to keep a child rear-facing until they have outgrown the rear-facing limits of their child restraint, or as close to four as possible.  Most recent common practice has suggested rear-facing until at least 2 years old, however it is safest to continue far beyond this.  By allowing a child to reach the rear-facing limits on their child restraint, you are maximising their time in a position which offers essential protection to their head, neck and spine in the event of an accident.  


 NZ Car Seat Law

 

NZ Car Seat Law can seem complicated, but it’s quite simple.

  • Any child in New Zealand, up until their 7th birthday, must be in an appropriate child restraint.

  • When a child is 7 years old (between their 7th and 8th birthdays), they must be in an appropriate child restraint if there is one available in the vehicle.

  • Once a child has reached 8 years old, they are no longer required by law to use a child restraint.

 

Height vs Age

 

While the law deals in ages, most 7 & 8 year-olds are not tall enough for a vehicle seat belt to properly fit them, and this is when “best practice” comes into play. To improve safety for the child, it is best practice to keep a child in a car seat, i.e. a booster, until they are 148cm tall.  This is the height at which a vehicle seat belt should safely fit across a child’s shoulder and hips as intended.  A child may not reach this height until 10-12 years of age, or older.  In this case, keeping a child in a booster until they reach this age is considered best practice.

Watch this video of Danielle Beh from SitTight, explaining more about the law and best practice for using car seats.

For full legislation, you can read section 7 of the Land Transport (Road User) Rule 2004  which governs how children in New Zealand are transported in vehicles.

 

Using a Car Seat Correctly

 

Using a child restraint correctly plays a vital role in keeping your children safe in your vehicle.  To do so, you must use a car seat in line with its manufacturer’s instructions.

Your car seat’s instruction manual will give you all you need to know to be sure you are using it safely, and in a way that offers your child the most protection possible. 

Among other things, a restraint’s manual will tell you what weight and/or height and/or aged child can use it safely, as well as all sorts of other information which detail how it should be set up and used correctly.  You must follow these instructions to make sure your car seat is installed and used as it has been designed.

If you have any questions about your car seat, and whether you are using it correctly, you can contact SitTight, or your local child restraint technician, who will be able to guide you.

 

Car Seat Safety Standards

 

Child restraints sold and used in New Zealand must be manufactured to certain safety standards to comply with our law.  The four safety standards approved for use in New Zealand are:

  • The Australian standard (AS/NZS 1754)
  • The European standard (ECE R44 & R129)
  • The US standard (FMVSS 213) - It is important to be aware that only some restraints manufactured to the US standard are compliant for use here.
  • The Japanese standard - this standard is only approved for use in New Zealand with in-built child restraints in vehicles.

You’ll find more detailed information on safety standards and whether your seat is approved for use in New Zealand, in this article by SitTight.

 

Safety in Driveways 

 

One in 5 child pedestrian deaths or injuries occur in the family’s own driveway.

Children are four times more at risk of getting hurt by vehicles in driveways that are not separated from the house by a fence. Other risk factors include shared driveways, driveways that exit onto a less busy road or cul-de-sac, properties with additional parking areas and driveways longer than 12m.

Extreme care should be taken in driveways where children may be playing. Most of the children who are killed or injured are toddlers around 2 years of age. All vehicles have blind zones where small children cannot be seen.

Keep children safe and secure, well away from driveways.

  • Fence off the driveway from the house or play area — particularly if the driveway is shared.
  • Always check around the vehicle before getting in.
  • Know where children are before you start the vehicle.

 

The Importance of a Secure Car Seat Installation

 

Is your child’s car seat installed securely?

One of the main jobs a car seat has to do is reduce the movement of a child in a crash.  It needs to stop the child from moving as quickly and as safely as possible. 

A crash at 50km/h creates the same force as if you fell out of the third floor of a building.

If you can move a car seat with your hand, imagine what the force of a crash would do to it.  It must be secure.

 

How can you check?

There’s a simple test to do to be sure a child restraint is secure.  Hold it next to where it’s connected to the vehicle and pull it side to side.  Does it move more than 2.5cm?

If the answer is yes, it’s not securely installed.

Using the “2.5cm rule” gives you a simple, precise measurement to use.  This is not a lot of movement so, don’t be surprised if you find your car seat is not secure enough.  Over 80% of car seats in New Zealand are not installed securely.

It’s not uncommon to have trouble getting a car seat secure.  Your instruction manual should guide you as to how to install your child restraint securely but if this is not clear and you need help doing so, make contact with your local child restraint technician who can offer knowledge, support and expertise. 

 

Back Seat is Best

 

Why is the back seat the safest position for a child to travel?

When deciding where a child should sit, it makes the most sense to seat them away from the areas of the vehicle that are most likely to be impacted in a crash. 

Statistics, and common sense, tell us that frontal crashes are one of the most common types of collision.  Therefore, seating a child in the back keeps them away from this point of danger and reduces their risk of injury.  Frontal airbags also add a significant risk to children travelling in the front seat.

If we follow this logic even further, it leads to the centre back seat being the position which is farthest from any crash point on the vehicle.  For this reason, the centre rear seat is often considered the “safest” place in a vehicle.  When installing child restraints, it’s important to know that there are often reasons why these can’t be installed in the centre back seat.  If you plan to install your child restraint in this position, check the restraint’s instruction manual to make sure you can do so in line with its manufacturer’s instructions, and your vehicle manual to check any guidelines or rules regarding child restraint installation.

When seating a child, or installing a child restraint, keep in mind how close your smallest passengers are to parts of the vehicle which, in a crash, are most often hit.  By seating them away from these areas, you are helping to give them the most protection you can.